Absolute Free Trade — Standard Life Plc


 

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to provide an investigation into Standard Life PLC to disclose clandestine networks of political lobbying activity and influence. After a short introduction that sets the underlying theme of Standard Life’s historical role in the British Empire, the scope is narrowed down to a selection of Standard Life’s contemporary directors: Malcolm Wood, Sir Nicholas Monck, Baroness McDonagh, Norman Blackwell and The Hon Roy MacLaren. The first two sections of the essay specify, contextualize and examine networks of influence and identify semi-clandestine relationships involving Standard Life, the Scottish Executive and the Scottish Legal Establishment and concerted attempts to influence the Executive’s committee on lobbying itself. Standard Life’s recruitment of a member of the New Labour network and their involvement with older right-wing networks and finally their connection to elite international political think tanks are dealt with the other two sections. It concludes with a brief summation of the importance of political lobbying networks of influence to Standard Life’s dominant position within Scotland’s financial sector policy planning.

Absolute Free Trade

An analysis of Standard Life’s political lobbying and influence of government could begin in 1832, when the company ‘elected’ as ‘figureheads’ the Duke of Buccleuch as governor and the Marquis of Lothian as his deputy. Standard Life both insured and financed the Scottish land-owning aristocracy. (1) Both aristocratic lineages maintained a connection with Standard Life and the main Scottish banks. These families were at the sharp military end of the British Empire’s expansion: the places where the killing was done, and the areas Standard Life moved into in the aftermath —more the followers of the camp rather than the banner.(2)

Adam Smith had been the tutor of the Duke of Buccleuch and came under the family’s patronage at the time when a selective conceptualization of his ideas was advanced by those who envisaged the future direction of the British Empire after the defeat of Napoleon. Acting on the urgings of a powerful group of London shipping and banking interests centered around the Bank of England, Parliament passed a Statement of Principle in support of the concept advocated by Adam Smith —so-called, “absolute free trade.” By 1846, this was formalized in a Parliamentary repeal of domestic English agriculture protection, the Corn Laws.(3) Their repeal expressed the calculation of the powerful financial and trade interests of the City of London, that their world dominance gave them a decisive advantage, which they should push to extremes.(4) If they dominated world trade, “free trade” could only ensure that their dominance would grow at the expense of other less-developed trading nations. With the establishment of a sister company ‘Colonial Life’ in 1845 and their merger in 1866, Standard Life followed the hegemony of absolute free trade’s geographical spread as British merchant banks reaped enormous profits on the India-Turkey-China opium trade and subsequent British Opium Wars of 1839-42 and 1856-58,(5) when the British Foreign Ministry furthered their banking interests by publicly demanding China open its ports to “free trade.”(6) Then came the expansion of the Empire into Eastern Africa down to the Cape, its progress culminating in the ‘War to end all wars’ of 1914-18. Standard Life had been associated with the Haig family since 1825, with Field Marshall Earl Haig joined the board in 1922, at the time Standard Life was underwriting Vickers’ pension scheme.(7)

Trust and Integrity

This section aims to disclose and explore Standard Life’s long-standing and influential connections with the Scottish Legal Establishment and how this merges with political lobbying.

As a prelude to ‘de-mutualisation’ Standard Life’s PR efforts to present the company as having strong moral principles, as the epitome of financial probity, included a David Hume Institute (DHI) seminar, Trust and Integrity, held at the Signet Library, Parliament Square, Edinburgh, organised jointly with the Securities and Investment Institute (SII)(8) and the DHI. The speakers were Lord Eddie George (9) and Standard Life’s Sandy Crombie, who discussed how effective the SII’s Principles were in business and their applicability to Standard Life. The DHI press release states that:

It is Sandy Crombie’s steadfast belief that the principles of trust and integrity have to be central to any business and to its dealings at all levels, internally and externally.(10)

These ‘principles’ are self-regulating and thus highly elastic: they hardly impute integrity. The City’s ‘Higgs code,’ for instance, categorically states that no single person should chair two FTSE 100-listed companies.(11) Sir Brian Stewart, Standard Life’s director, who entirely breaks the code, came up with this loophole:

“It is comply or explain,” he says. “But I don’t believe that Derek Higgs […] meant it to be anything else. He wanted it to be best for the company at particular times. Brian Stewart might be right for this company at certain periods in its evolution and might not be at another. That’s life.(12)

Which is all very philosophical and relativist but, again, hardly conducive to Trust and Integrity.

The DHI was founded in 1985 by the Institute for Economic Affairs’, Sir Alan Peacock. Although it argues it holds no political affiliation, it can be considered an outpost of neo-liberal ideology in Scotland with numerous ties to the Executive. Professor Brian Main (the official advisor of the Scottish Parliament Justice Committees) was the DHI’s director from 1999 and was replaced in 2005 by the Royal Bank of Scotland’s Jeremy Peat: an economist at the Treasury and the Scottish Office. The DHI board also has Standard Life’s Nic Kuensberg and David Simpson (founder of the Fraser of Allander Institute). The DHI receive sponsorship from Standard Life (13) and several other large financial institutions.(14)

The DHI’s ‘independence’ means it can form a board of trustees that pools senior journalists, members of the Scottish Parliament’s Corporate Body Audit and Advisory Board, bank executives and members of the Legal profession’s inner circle.

But to do what? As their Hon. President, George Stigler’s ‘Economic Theory of Regulation’, states: “governments do not end up creating monopoly in industries by accident. Rather, they regulate at the behest of producers who “capture” the regulatory agency and use regulation to prevent competition” and they do this through interest groups and other political participants.(15)

The close knit weave of business-funded think tanks includes the venue itself —the Signet Library— “Edinburgh’s best kept secret,”(16) used as something of a gang hut for private corporate events. Owned by The Society of Writers to Her Majesty’s Signet Trust, known as the WS Society — it is a clandestine body for lawyers through which DHI and Standard Life gain a close proximity to an integral part of the Scottish legal system. The Society’s Accreditation board members are:(17)

• Lord Cullen, retired Lord President of the Court of Session (18)

• Jeremy Peat, BBC Trustee for Scotland, and Director, David Hume Institute

• Malcolm Wood, WS, General Counsel and Secretary, Standard Life plc

• Kenneth Reid, WS, Professor of Property Law, University of Edinburgh

• Kaliani Lyle, Chief Executive, Citizens Advice Scotland

• Richard Henderson, WS, Solicitor to the Scottish Executive

• David Rowley, Director of Education, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh

Adam Smith’s father was a ‘Writer to the Signet,’ holding the office of Judge Advocate for Scotland and legal adviser to the ‘Courts Martial.’ (19) The Society’s arcane anachronistic appurtenances of elitist privilege date back to before the days of Empire, but this is a strong site of contemporary influence for Standard Life, principally through Malcolm Wood.(20) Members of the WS Society are automatically members of the College of Justice, whose Senators comprise Scotland’s senior judiciary. Its Council is a large group of firms such as Shepherd and Wedderburn (who fund the DHI and are members of the Scottish Parliament Business Exchange and Scottish Financial Enterprise); Gillespie Macandrew, WS; Maclay Murray & Spens and Murray Beith Murray, WS.

Intrigue surrounded the prospective role of Scotland’s biggest law firms in the Edinburgh Parliament’s legislative process ever since some advertised their services for the world of parliamentary lobbying. Maclay, Murray and Spens formed Public Affairs Europe in conjunction with Beattie Media and Shepherd and Wedderburn launched Saltire Parliamentary Consultants.(21)

Standard Life are also members of the Industry and Parliament Trust, a long-standing Parliamentary lobby group whose early members included notorious political lobbyists Neville Sandelson, part of the secret government propaganda organization the Information Research Department(22) and Dick Taverne the president of Prima Europe. (23) They also are members of the Scottish branch of Business in the Community. Standard Life’s dominant position makes them key members of Scottish Enterprise and Scottish Financial Enterprise who lobby for and represent the financial industry in Scotland via close ties to the Executive.(24)

Standard Life seeks to gain influence through the use of several think tanks. Ahead of the Turner Commission’s report to Government on the future of pensions, the ‘independent think-tank’ (dependent on support by Standard Life and Scottish Enterprise) the Scottish Council Foundation (SCF) published the results of their study into the future of work and retirement.(25) SCF, have connections to the Institute for Public Policy Research: together with HBOS and Prudential, Standard Life fund the IPPR’s Centre for Asset-Based Welfare (26) which aims to “encourage even those on low incomes to save and invest for the future, enabling them to become less dependent on the state.”(27)

Opaque Transparency

This section outlines the background to a joint lobbying operation by the Charities Aid Foundation (CAF) and Transparency International UK (TI-UK) in 2002, that aimed to influence the Scottish Parliament’s Standards Committee’s views on the parameters of lobbying itself, through CAF’s invitation to attend a conference on lobbying it organised with TI-UK.(28)

Standard Life’s Sir Nicholas Monck, is also a key member of TI-UK. (29) Monck has connections to the ‘Permanent Government,’ as the former Second Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, (30) in the 1970s, he handled the domestic and international aspects of the UK’s application for an International Monetary Fund loan. Now an ‘international consultant’ and Senior Associate of Oxford Policy Management (OPM) he continues his missionary zeal to repeal, what we could term the contemporary Corn Laws, with work on ‘Enterprise Reform and Privatisation,’ and cuts in ‘Public Expenditure’ in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Cuba.(31)

According to their website OPM’s work aims:

…directly or indirectly, to reduce poverty through: More effective macroeconomic management and sector policies and programmes. Improving access to and the efficiency of key services for the poor (including health, education, and social protection) Better management of public expenditure, Governance reforms of public institutions.

This work is for other countries, yet at home, with regard to Monck’s activities, the reverse would seem to apply. (32) OPM’s main personnel are (33) : Mike Aaronson, a former diplomat and Vice-Chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy (WFD); Paul Batchelor, PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Global Management Team member of the Advisory Council of Transparency International and Anthony Hodges, ex-Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), The Economist Intelligence Unit (which has long-standing connections with British Secret Intelligence Service, and it is highly probable that Aaronson and Batchelor have some connection here given the confluence of these organisation) and Saferworld.(34)

OPM work alongside British Consultants and Construction Bureau (BCCB) now called British Expertise, (35) which is allied to the Crown Agents nexus that, along with Standard Life, dates back to providing ancillary support to the primary activities of the Empire’s expansion. Crown Agents are exactly what the name implies. It was also founded in the 1830s as Crown Agents for the Colonies to administer the British Empire, whose exploitation is now re-branded as a ‘development.’(36)

The Chairman of Crown Agents is the Vice Chairman of CAF and the President of TI-UK: Peter Berry — also involved in the Scottish Crop Research Institute which conducts experiments into GM crops in a promotional manner.(37)

Before we return to TI-UK, CAF and the Lobby Committee, it should be noted that CAF’s Adele Blakebrough is the co-founder of the Community Action Network (CAN) — an organisation for ‘social entrepreneurs’ funded by British Gas, Coca Cola, BNFL and others — part of a set-up called The Mezzanine used by groups such as Demos, ERA, Foreign Policy Centre, Ashoka and The Policy Network. Ostensibly a nexus of interpenetrating social sector organisations, it included lobby front groups, think tanks, astroturf organisations, funding bodies, venture philanthropists and political action committees with government, corporate and intelligence connections: part of the network New Labour had opened up for secret routes of special access to allow corporate chiefs to bargain, alter or veto government decisions.(38) TI-UK is based on the 3rd Floor of the Downstream Building, 1 London Bridge, part of a similar nexus called Mezzanine2 now comprising some 50 organisations.

CAF and TI-UK wanted the Standards Committee’s Bill Butler to attend their conference on ‘Regulating Lobbying Activities.’ By their own admission the background checks on both organisations was “taken from web sites set up by both organisations […] checked with a third party organisation (CAF with the Charities Commission and TI with BDO (accountants) and the Department for International Development).” That is the equivalent of asking their friends for a reference, not an investigation.(39)

Should we be concerned with this? Generally speaking TI’s reputation is taken on trust. But researchers have identified several anomalies in its whiter-than-white public image. The Scottish Executive would have done better to have studied a paper, by Julie Bajolle where TI are clearly demonstrated as part of the ‘family’ of the National Endowment for Democracy’s psychological operations. (40) Put mildly TI, “has been strongly criticized, including by its former supporters, for its methodology and outcomes,” and is accused of having a private sector bias. Among TI’s long-time supporters is billionaire George Soros, other contributors are Shell, KPMG and JP Morgan Chase.

Bajolle asserted that TI deliberately avoids targeting companies who are big contributors to the organization with its “policy of not naming and shaming” corporations: “The private sector is spared direct negative publicly and the instances of cooperations between TI and this sector, such as the Business Principles, contribute to giving it a favorable image, which, […] may not be totally deserved.” Bajolle also notes that the membership of TI includes a high proportion of top civil servants and business people, which results in the organization being considered ‘elite’ and not fitting the typical image of an NGO.

What emerges from Bajolle’s research is a picture in which powerful countries and their powerful foundations and companies, along with finance and business professionals, provide support to an organization devoted to combating corruption. The work of this organization is primarily, albeit not exclusively, targeted at poor countries that have often been the long-term victims of the corrupting influence of the said countries, companies, and foundations. It reinforces the convenient illusion that an essential change can be brought about in the “underdeveloped” countries without it also occurring in the “developed” world.

Note also that the parliamentary document (after focusing on the need for transparency) states that their deliberations on the Scottish Parliament Business Exchange is a “Private Paper.”

Democracy insured

At the same time Gerry Grimstone replaced Sir Brian Stewart, in an attempt to ‘beef up’ its board, Standard Life recruited former General Secretary of the Labour Party, Margaret McDonagh. Their press release was quiet about what qualities she provided as a non-executive. (42) This section tests postulates that she has been acquired as a New Labour insider, an éminence grise adept in the darker arts of perception management, secret funding and election rigging.

According to the New Statesman McDonagh despised Lord Levy, and was a rival in her guile for secretive money-raising for Blair’s private office —not without its scandals. (43) When she joined Standard Life she was Express Newspapers’ general manager:

Labour party officials insisted at a private lunch that Express newspaper owner Richard Desmond write out a cheque for £100,000 there and then, so that it could be cashed by the party before the deadline for publicly declaring political donations cut in. According to Labour party sources, the lunch took place on 15 February 2001 shortly after Desmond, who also owns a string of pornographic, top-shelf publications as well as the Fantasy Channel, was given government clearance to buy Express Newspapers. It was attended by Margaret McDonagh, then general secretary of the Labour party, and Lord Alli, a Labour fundraiser with close links to Tony Blair.(44)

The report tells us that shiftily: “Downing Street was anxious to ease her out of her party job as soon as the election was over. Desmond was happy to oblige with a six-month posting until she left for Harvard.”

McDonagh is presently with YooMedia, recently selected to take part in the government’s experiments with electronic voting via television. (45) YooMedia targets Local Authorities, Health Service Organisations, Central Government Departments and Government Agencies with propaganda media and is also involved in the technology side of the somewhat disreputable world of TV phone-ins, gambling and naughty chat lines, not normally associated with the staid world of insurance.(46)

McDonagh’s recent work has been with BBM, ‘consultants’ assisting the Trinidadian United National Congress whose objective is to win the election at all costs.(47) If this sounds familiar, Philip Gould, noted of the Clinton election of 1992, that:

Margaret McDonagh, Hohn Braggins and Alan Barnard, who were to hold senior positions in the 1997 election campaign, were all working in one capacity or another for Clinton. Jonathan Powell, then working for the British Embassy in Washington, now Tony Blair’s chief of staff, was observing the Clinton campaign at first hand and building links that were later to prove priceless. Out of all this was born Millbank Tower and the ‘war room’ it housed; rapid rebuttal and the Excalibur computer; an obsession with message…(48)

McDonagh, Braggins and Barnard now make up BBM. According to Seymour M. Hersh, McDonagh was directly involved in election rigging in Iraq concerning Iyad Allawi, who had worked both for Saddam Hussein’s Mukhabarat and for Western intelligence agencies. To subvert the democracy we are fighting for, first the NED was involved, but backed off, then the activities were kept, in part, “off the books” and were conducted by retired CIA officers and other non-government personnel:

Several weeks before the election, Margaret McDonagh, a political operative close to Tony Blair, showed up at Allawi’s side in Baghdad, and immediately got involved in a last-minute barrage of campaigning, advertising, and spending. (McDonagh did not respond to a request for comment.) These efforts, and Allawi’s own attempt to present himself as a forceful Prime Minister, apparently helped to raise his standing.(49)

In an interview Hersh adds that McDonagh turned up with a lot of money, and may have been involved in the propaganda for the war:

…it’s my understanding that McDonagh and others were, when Blair first began as the build up to the Iraqi war began, they were involved in doing some of the early white papers inside the British government, making the case for Saddam having WMD. Later that activity was taken over by 10 Downing Street, the professionals, but she and others on the outside were doing early drafts of that stuff, very close to Blair. And she was just there at his side in his office, seen by people in his office, not publicly known, but there’s no question that she was playing a major role as a political adviser to Allawi in the end.(50)

Again we hark back to the days and methods of Empire — ensuring that ‘democracy’ provides a puppet government.

Standard Life have also maintained a connection with older right-wing networks with Norman Blackwell, presently chairman of the Centre for Policy Studies (CPS). This largely ties in with their interest in private health care.(51)

The CPS was reputedly fraudulently set up by Keith Joseph as the base for propaganda for monetarism and right-wing ideology, and to promote Margaret Thatcher.(52)

The CPS became the formal political manifestation of the ideology that had so far been propagated by the nominally independent Institute for Economic Affairs. Both were in the propaganda business. Both had offices in relatively unassuming private houses in S.W.1. Both poured out a stream of publications designed partly to reassure the faithful but first and foremost to proselytize.(53)

The CPS concentrated its propaganda on the universities, while the IEA tried to influence ‘Fleet Street’ and the City. The “economics” propounded by the IEA, which were openly taken up by the Conservative government in 1982, were, inter alia:

“… more denationalisation of industry; an extension of private medicine… and more anti-union legislation.”(54)

Blackwell has close ties to Gerald Mobbs a leading light of Aims Of Industry (55) which together with the CPS, IEA, Adam Smith Institute and the Economic League form the basis of British right-wing, virulently anti-communist think tanks. But strangely there seems to have been a merger with the ‘subversives’ it once despised —the CPS now publishes ‘Revolutionary Communist,’ Frank Furedi, the founder of Living Marxism. (56) In the early 1990s Sir Douglas Hague, Arthur Seldon and Graham Mather joined Marxism Today’s Demos, based in the Mezzanine mentioned earlier.

The Chatham House Crowd

Deputy governor of Standard Life from 1841-62, The Earl of Elgin was governor-general of Canada and viceroy of India and a founder of Colonial Life. Following in his footsteps, The Hon. Roy MacLaren is Standard Life’s Canadian director. This section aims to disclose his connection to elite think tanks. Originally a diplomat, (57) he was also a Member of the Canadian Parliament, (1983-96) and negotiated the final stages of NAFTA and of the Uruguay Round of the GATT. (58) In 1996 he returned to diplomatic life, serving as High Commissioner for Canada to the UK. He is a Council member of the International Institute For Strategic Studies (IISS).(59)

It was at an IISS meeting that Andrew Gilligan met Dr. David Kelly (60), it perceives itself as the world’s leading authority on political-military conflict and aims to convene government ministers, officials, international civil servants, analysts, the corporate elite and journalists. Their December 2006, regional security summit’s speakers included William Cohen (The Cohen Group, former US Secretary of Defense) and Richard Armitage (Armitage International L.C.; former US Deputy Secretary of State). (61) Here McLaren joins the luminaries of the world of ‘intelligence’ such as Dame Pauline Neville-Jones, General the Lord Guthrie, Rita Hauser and Lord Powell of Bayswater.(62)

The ideology of the cold war now gone, for McLaren “Foreign policy is trade policy.” (63) As a director of Brascan, he was caught up in the Conrad Black trial, perhaps inadvertently the system of Asset Management is up on trial?(64)

Authorities said Black, along with other officials, used insider trading to boost Hollinger stock in 1998, arranging for the Canadian company Brascan to buy Hollinger shares at the same time short-sellers were unloading their stock. At the time, Black was a director at Brascan, now called Brookfield Asset Management. “While Brascan used its own funds to purchase the shares, Black guaranteed their downside and interest rate, and also guaranteed their profit,” prosecutors wrote, saying Black and other executives received cash from the deal.(65)

Brascan was a major contributor to McLaren’s Liberal Party in Canada, (66) as are Standard Life, who as stated, have had a long association with the country. Their payments of C$20,000 contradicted their annual report’s declaration that they made no political donations. However, Standard Life said it is not obliged to declare donations made outside the European Union. Malcolm Wood said: “If the donation had been made in the UK it would have been disclosed.”(67)

To close we will note that MacLaren is part of the top elite influential groups: the Executive Committee of the Trilateral Commission, an Attendee (1994 and 1999) at Bilderberg, (68) The European-Atlantic Group,(69) Chairman of the Canadian Council on Foreign Relations, the Canadian Institute for International Affairs, past Chairman of the Atlantic Council of Canada,(70) a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation (71) and the Round Table.(72) Also known as the “Chatham House crowd,” The Round Table first appeared in 1910 with the subtitle ‘A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire’. This is the Rhodes Milner group founded by Lord Milner (1854-1925) a member of Lloyd George’s ‘war cabinet’ and Lionel Curtis éminence grise of British imperial and foreign policy. (73) According Carroll Quigley it was a “secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy.”(74)

Conclusion

As the biggest private company in Edinburgh, with 7500 employees in the city, and assets nearing £100bn, Standard Life undoubtedly sits at the top table when it comes to financial sector policy planning in the Scottish Executive and the Treasury. (75) Its influence has been institutionalised over decades, and presently takes its form in organisations such as the Executive’s think-tank the Financial Services Strategy Group (FSSG), chaired by Enterprise Minister Jim Wallace. Jack McConnell personally invited Standard Life’s Trevor Matthews to join the Financial Services Advisory Board.(76)

The group initially comprised top figures from financial institutions and unions in Scotland —including then Standard Life chief executive, Iain Lumsden, Jim McFarlane, chief executive of Scottish Enterprise Edinburgh & Lothian, and Bank of Scotland governor George Mitchell — who developed the long-term strategy for the financial services industry, endorsing ‘phase two’ of the Executive’s financial services action plan.(77)

The FSSG includes two representatives of the union Amicus, directors of the Clydesdale Bank, Lloyds TSB, Noble Group, Aegon, Abbey, Morgan Stanley, Martin Currie, Norwich Union, the Scottish Executive, Scottish Enterprise, Scottish Financial Enterprise, Scottish Development International and a Treasury observer. This is such a small nexus of influence that the TSB’s Susan Rice, Chair of the FSSG’s Steering group is also a director of CAF’s Charity Bank (alongside Peter Berry of Transparency International and Crown Agents) and a governor of the DHI, mentioned previously, which could correlate their importance. (78) Standard Life are also Corporate members of Chatham House (along with Crown Agents and Cairn Energy).(79)

Public relations itself provides an opportunity for the large financial organizations (who are large advertisers) to merge their talents in the Scottish Advertisers’ Group which has a committee comprising of most of the names mentioned above.(80)

Finally, by contextualizing and examining these networks of influence, I have aimed to show Standard Life’s semi-clandestine connections to the Legal Establishment, its connection to concerted attempts to influence the Scottish Executive’s position on lobbying towards a pro-corporate agenda; Standard Life’s recruitment of members of both New Labour and right-wing networks and their long standing connection to elite international political think tanks which span the course of the development of the British Empire.

Notes

1. Moss, M. (2000) Standard Life 1825-2000, Mainstream, p. 34.
2. Thomas, H., Ed. (1959) The Establishment, Ace Books, p. 151.
3. Morton, A.L. (1990) A People’s History of England, Lawrence & Wishart, p.345. Britain’s domestic agriculture and farmers were ruined by the loss of the Corn Law’s protectionism. Irish farmers were emiserated, as their largest export market suddenly lowered food prices drastically, as a result. The mass starvation and emigration of Irish peasants and their families —the tragic Irish Potato Famine of 1845-6 —was a direct consequence of this “absolute free trade.”
4. The new weekly propaganda journal of these powerful City of London merchant and finance interests, The Economist, was founded in 1843 with the explicit purpose of agitating for the repeal of the Corn Laws. Engdahl makes a connection here with the campaign to shape ruling English ideology in 1851 and the new ‘social science,’ arguing that the propagandists used “a viciously false Malthusian argument of over-population, rather than admit the reality of a deliberate policy of forced underinvestment in new productive technologies. The name given to the political doctrine which rationalized the brutal economic policy, was English Liberalism.” In essence, English Liberalism, as defined, justified the development of an ever more powerful Imperial elite class, ruling on behalf of the “vulgar ignorant masses,” who could not be entrusted to rule on their own behalf. See: Engdahl, W. F. (2004) A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, Pluto Press.
5. Jardine Matheson, significant players in the trade, had close ties to Standard Life, see Moss p.46 (although Moss makes no mention of the opium).
6.http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/Standard_Life%27s_History_in_relation_to_the_British_Empire.
7. See Moss op cit., p. 199-202, Haig joining the board cemented Standard’s relationship with London bankers Glyn’s, managed by General Lawrence Haig’s chief of staff.
8. Scott Dobbie Chairman of the SII is also Chairman of Standard Life European Private Equity Trust.
9. Now on the lecture circuit ‘Steady Eddie’ was probably hired from TMC Corporate Events & Entertainment Ltd: http://www.tmcentertainment.co.uk/speaker-index.html?speakerid=212&speakertypeid=4
10.http://www.davidhumeinstitute.com/DHI%20Website/Press/Spring%202006/SII%20Press%20release.pdf
11.Bowker, J. (2006) Stewart facing tug-o-war over double chair, Scotsman, January
12.Telegraph (2006) Two chairs but cards firmly on the table, Telegraph, April 10.
13. Such as the DHI’s The appropriate role of Government in the provision of pensions with other funding from Cairn Energy. Long associated with Standard Life, Cairn’s founder Bill Gammell is a close friend of Tony Blair and George W. Bush, see http://www.sundayherald.com/sport/sportspecial/ display.var.1300423.0.energy_boost.php
14. http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/David_Hume_Institute
15. http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Enc/bios/Stigler.html On Stigler and the Mont Pelerin Society see: http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/gstigler.html
16. http://www.thesignet.co.uk/events/
17. http://www.firmmagazine.com/members/news.php?id=604
18. Cullen oversaw ‘Inquiries’ into sensitive areas: Piper Alpha, Dunblane, Ladbroke Grove and the Al Megrahi appeal.
19. http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/HTML-voice.php?recordID=0238
20. Wood is a supposedly member of the secret Speculative Society of Edinburgh (which has long ties with Shepherd and Wedderburn). The First Minister attended Standard Life’s 175th Anniversary Reception and Dinner of March 2000 at the Signet Library, see: http://www.scottishexecutive.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/1066/0012448.pdf . The DHI’s Hume Occasional Paper series also aims to provide an ‘Agenda for the Scottish Parliament’ and here Standard Life provide funding and writers, such as David Simpson’s “The Economics of Independence.”
21. http://www.journalonline.co.uk/article/1001083.aspx
22. Sandelson also helped set up the Community Action Network.
23. Easton, T. (1997) The British American Project for the Successor Generation, Lobster 33.
24, Jack McConnell is the Chairman of the Financial Services Advisory Board and Gordon Arthur, Director of Corporate Affairs, for Standard Life is also a member of Scottish Financial Enterprise.
25. http://www.scottishcouncilfoundation.org/page.php?pg=2&id=14
26. http://www.ippr.org.uk/supportingippr/?id=2509
27.http://www.ippr.org/uploadedFiles/research/researchteams/November%202006%20for%20web.pdf and http://www.abi.org.uk/Newsreleases/viewNewsRelease.asp?nrid=3697
28.http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/committees/historic/standards/papers-02/stp02-13.pdf
29. http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/Transparency_International_UK
30. Verrier, A. (1983)Through the Looking Glass, London: Johnathan Cape.
31. http://www.opml.co.uk/docs/ACF2131.doc
32. His Treasury work also involved the privatisation process (especially BT and Water) and competition policy in terms of takeovers and restrictive practices (in the halcyon days of Hansonian asset-stripping and the destruction of the unions).
33. Most of the staff are Research Associates of Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, and have worked for the World Bank, WTO and GATT on projects titled “Making Markets Work for the Poor.”
34. His Ford Foundation-funded West Africa Office is responsible for grants relating to peace and security, the development of independent media and press freedom, and economics training and research.
35. http://www.britishexpertise.org/council.asp
36. It printed the colony’s stamps and banknotes and acted as a private bank to the colonial monetary authorities, government officials and heads of state; and as arms procurers, quartermasters, and paymasters for the colonial armies.
37http://www.scri.sari.ac.uk/press/Governors.htm See also http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/Scottish_Crop_Research_Institute
38. Clark, W. (2003) Demos, Lobster 45.
39. The resultant report from the conference can be found at http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/committees/historic/standards/papers-02/stp02-16.pdf TI were signatories of the Ending corporate privileges and secrecy around lobbying in the European Union http://www.alter-eu.org/system/files/alter-eu.pdf
40.http://www.bulgaria-gateway.org/en/browser.php?state=content&type=link&cat_id=0
41. The appointments followed a recruitment search headed by senior independent director Hugh Stevenson formerly a Managing Director of S.G. Warburg’s.
42.http://ukgroup.standardlife.com/content/news/new_articles/2007/board_changes.xml
43. http://www.newstatesman.com/200205200012
44. http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=85323
45. http://www.yoomedia.com/YooMedia_DITG_Merger_RNS.pdf
46.http://www.digitallook.com/news/rns/359773-14268/YOO-Interim_Results.html
47. http://www.guardian.co.tt/archives/2007-02-03/news9.html Standard Life suffered badly under a left-wing Trinidadian government in the 70s (Moss p.254).
48. Gould, P. (1999) The Unfinished Revolution: How the Modernisers Saved the Labour Party, Abacus, 176-177. McDonagh was taught to use Excaliber by Bob “total scumbag” Mulholland, see http://politics.guardian.co.uk/election2001/comment/0,9407,498995,00.html
49. Hersh S. M. (2005) Get Out the Vote Did Washington try to manipulate Iraq’s election? The New Yorker, July 18. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0718-03.htm
50. http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/07/19/1353243
51. http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/Centre_for_Policy_Studies#Links
52. Keegan, W. (1984) Mrs Thatcher’s Economic Experiment, Penguin, p.47.
53. ibid., p.60
54. ibid., p. 60
55. http://www.spinprofiles.org/index.php/Slough_Estates
56. Monbiot, G. (2003) Invasion of the Entryists, Guardian, December 9.
57. http://www.broadviewpress.com/template.asp?inc=maclaren&title=Roy%20Maclaren
58. http://www.wto.org/English/news_e/news98_e/dgcand.htm
59. Standard Life’s previous Canadian director, Marie-Jose Drouin was a member of the Hudson Institute.
60.http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/03/hutton_inquiry/hutton_report/html/chapter03.stm
61.http://www.iiss.org/publications/manama-dialogue-report/plenary-session-1
62. http://www.iiss.org/governance/the-council/hon-roy-maclaren
63. http://www.carleton.ca/csds/occasional_papers/npsia-16.pdf
64. http://www.secinfo.com/dRX7g.1e2.c.htm Black is a director of the Centre for Policy Studies, together with Standard Life’s Norman Blackwell.
65.http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/01/09/business/NA-FIN-US-Hollinger-Fraud.php See also: http://newsfeedresearcher.com/data/articles_b2/idb2007.01.10.06.23.25.html
66. http://www.electionsontario.on.ca/stats/095files/95libann.doc
67. http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/business.cfm?id=760542003
68. http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/8425/TRILAT.HTM
69. http://www.eag.org.uk/speeches.htm
70.http://www.atlantic-council.ca/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=95&Itemid=169 and http://www.atlantic-council.ca/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=89&Itemid=160
71. http://www.ditchley.co.uk/page/64/the-governors.htm and http://www.ditchley.co.uk/page/174/international-relations.htm
72. http://www.ditchley.co.uk/page/64/the-governors.htm With William Emmott, former Editor of the Economist, McLaren also runs The Canada Europe Roundtable for Business —essentially an advisory group of business people from both sides of the Atlantic intent on proposing advice to both the EU and Canada on trade and investment issues.
73. http://www.moot.org.uk/Conf_1998.asp
74. Quigley, C. (1982) The Anglo-American Establishment, Books in Focus p.3
75. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/03/27122425/4
76. Letter of 2 March 2006 obtained under FOI.
77. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2005/03/17080559
78.http://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/news/media/Press+Releases/Susan+Rice+-+What+led+me+to+lead.htm
79. http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/index.php?id=321
80. http://www.isba.org.uk/isba/x_downloads/AR06-AG.pdf

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